NGS-SA: Publications and pre-prints of our genomics surveillance work

Molecular Epidemiology and Trends in HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Mozambique 1999-2018

Authors: Ismael N, Wilkinson E, Mahumane I, Gemusse H, Giandhari J, Bauhofer A, Vubil A, Mambo P, Singh L, Mabunda N, Bila D, Engelbrecht S, Gudo E, Lessells R, de Oliveira T

Journal: Viruses, 2022. DOI:


HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) can become a public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries where genotypic testing for people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not available. For first-line regimens to remain effective, levels of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) need to be monitored over time. To determine the temporal trends of TDR in Mozambique, a search for studies in PubMed and sequences in GenBank was performed. Only studies covering the pol region that described HIVDR and genetic diversity from treatment na´ve patients were included. A dataset from seven published studies and one novel unpublished study conducted between 1999 and 2018 were included. The Calibrated Population Resistance tool (CPR) and REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool version 3 for sequences pooled by sampling year were used to determine resistance mutations and subtypes, respectively. The prevalence of HIVDR amongst treatment-na´ve individuals increased over time, reaching 14.4% in 2018. The increase was most prominent for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), reaching 12.7% in 2018. Subtype C was predominant in all regions, but a higher genetic variability (19% non-subtype C) was observed in the north region of Mozambique. These findings confirm a higher diversity of HIV in the north of the country and an increased prevalence of NNRTI resistance among treatment na´ve individuals over time.